This is a 3-year course, open for graduates.
Thereare various specialized branches of Law. These include:
Civil law seeks to resolve non-criminal disputes such as disagreements over the meaning of contracts, property ownership, divorce, child custody, and damages for personal and property damage. A civil court is a place where people can solve their problems with people peacefully. The function of civil law is to provide a legal remedy to solve problems. Sometimes civil law is based on a state or federal statute; at other times civil law is based on a ruling by the court.
TYPES OF CIVIL CASES:
Civil law covers a wide spectrum of topics. Some of these topics are:
1. Consumer law
2. International law
3. Agricultural law
4. Employment law
5. Animal law
6. Entertainment law
7. Business law
8. Family law
9. Sports law
10. Tax law
11. Intentional torts such as libel, slander, defamation of character, battery and assault.
Criminal Law or penal law involves prosecution by the government of a person for an act that has been classified as a crime. It is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. There are four theories of criminal justice: punishment, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. It is believed that by imposing sanctions for the crime, society can achieve justice and a peaceable social order.
Criminal Law deals with:
Arson, Assault, Battery, Bribery, Burglary, Child Abuse, Child Pornography, Computer Crimes, Controlled Substances, Credit Card Fraud, Criminal Defense, Drugs and Narcotics, DUI/DWI, Embezzlement, Expungements, Felonies, Fraud, Homicide, Identity Theft, Internet and Cyberspace Crime, Manslaughter, Money Laundering, Murder, Perjury, Prostitution, Rape, RICO, Robbery, Sex Crimes, Shoplifting, Theft, Weapons, White Collar Crime and Wire Fraud among others.
Corporate Law is the area of law focusing on the legal methods of obtaining an official charter or articles of incorporation from the state for an organization, which may be a profit-making business, a professional business such as a law office or medical office or a non-profit entity which operates for charitable, social, religious, civic or other public service purposes and the legal ramifications of such an organization-business formation law. Corporations are governed by state corporation laws. Other laws that govern business operations include consumer protection law, contract laws, labor and employment law, anti-trust and trade regulation laws, securities, and others that deal with the day-to-day operations of a corporation.
Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government. Government agency action can include rulemaking, adjudication, or the enforcement of a specific regulatory agenda. Administrative law is considered a branch of public law. As a body of law, administrative law deals with the decision-making of administrative units of government (e.g., tribunals, boards or commissions) that are part of a national regulatory scheme in such areas as police law, international trade, manufacturing, the environment, taxation, broadcasting, immigration and transport. Administrative law expanded greatly during the twentieth century, as legislative bodies worldwide created more government agencies to regulate the increasingly complex social, economic and political spheres of human interaction.
Cyber crimes can involve criminal activities that are traditional in nature, such as theft, fraud, forgery, defamation and mischief, all of which are subject to the Indian Penal Code. The abuse of computers has also given birth to a gamut of new age crimes that are addressed by the Information Technology Act, 2000.
We can categorize Cyber crimes in two ways
The Computer as a target:-using a computer to attack other computers.
E.g. Hacking, Virus/Worm attacks, DOS attack etc.
The computer as a weapon :- using a computer to commit real world crimes.
E.g. Cyber Terrorism, IPR violations, Credit card frauds, EFT frauds, Pornography etc.
Cyber Crime regulated by Cyber Laws or Internet Laws.
Laws which deal with employees and employers and the relationship between them. Labour laws cover things like job security, industrial agreements, strikes and conciliation and arbitration.
Law that relates to the constitution, as a permanent system of political and juridical government,as distinguished from statutory and common law ,which relate to matters subordinate to such constitution.
The term patent usually refers to a right granted to anyone who invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof. The additional qualification utility patent is used in the United States to distinguish it from other types of patents (e.g. design patents) but should not be confused with utility models granted by other countries. Examples of particular species of patents for inventions include biological patents, business method patents, chemical patents and software patents.